CHEMICAL COMPOSITION


Common Steel Grades


Steel is manufactured by mixing iron and carbon in a specific ratio, in which the percentage of carbon may range from 0.2 percent to 2.14 percent of the total weight. Other materials used in creating steel are chromium, manganese, vanadium and tungsten.

One of the main factors contributing to the utility of steel is the broad range of different properties which can be obtained. For example, easy formability and good ductility may be necessary during fabrication of a part. Once formed, a high strength part may be needed in service. Both of these material properties are achievable from the same material. All steel can be softened to some degree by first heating the steel and then cooling it at a suitable rate (this process is called ''Annealing''). The effect of heating depends on the chemical composition of the particular steel, the idea is to soften the material so the material is adjustable to a desired shape of application. Other forms of heat treatment would be quenching and tempering. Quenching and tempering involves the heating of steel to the ''austenite phase'', then quenching it in water or oil. This rapid cooling result in a hard and brittle martensitic structure

 

Chemical properties of common steel (Material Grade in %)
Chemical properties  _______  _________  _________  _________  _______  _________  _______  _______  _______  _______  _______
    SAE1010 SAE1008 SAE1012 300WA JI5GV132 DD11 S355 S235 S275 Corten_A

C

min

0.08

 

0.1

 

0.05

 

 

 

 

 

C

max

0.13

0.1

0.15

0.22

0.1

0.12

0.23

0.22

0.25

0.12

Si

 

 

 

 

0.5

0.17

 

2.5

2.5

2.5

0.75

Mn^2

min

0.3

0.3

0.3

 

0.25

 

 

 

 

0.2

Mn^2

max

0.6

0.5

0.6

1.6

0.5

0.6

1.6

1.6

1.6

0.5

P Max

 

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.05

0.035

0.045

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.15

S Max

 

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.04

0.045

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.03

AI

 

 

 

 

0.1

 

 

 

 

 

0.02

Fe

min

99.18

99.31

99.16

97.48

89.9

99.19

97.56

97.58

97.55

99.82

Fe

max

99.62

99.7

99.6

 

99.2

 

97.56

97.64

97.57

99.58